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Elles tombent aussi dans l’intervalle de variation des autres sépultures « ocrées » du début du Gravettien en Europe de l’Ouest et en Europe centrale et complètent donc nos connaissances sur la forme de ces sépultures de cette période.
Enfin, les analyses menées pour obtenir ces datations nous permettent de connaître les données concernant les isotopes stables du Carbone et de l’Azote des deux fossiles.
Ces derniers placent donc les deux sépultures les plus élaborées du Paléolithique au sein de l’intervalle de variation des dates obtenues pour les niveaux archéologiques de ce site du Gravettien d’Europe de l’Est.
Si elles confirment celles précédemment obtenues sur les sépultures de Sunghir 2 et 3, elles sont les premières nous assurant que la sépulture de Sunghir 1, rapportée au même ensemble culturel, se situe au sein de la même période chronologique.
Anderson and Felson22 reported in an early study considering smoking as a possible risk factor for knee and hip OA that smoking had a negative relationship with OA occurrence 23 and subsequent progression.24–27 However, not all results are consistent,28 29 and evidence supporting the negative relationship between smoking and knee and hip OA development is somewhat controversial.
Suggested reasons for reduced risk of knee and hip OA in smokers include decreased physical activity27 and lower body weight.30 However, these results were not maintained after adjusting for physical activity31 and body weight.32 While nicotine has been asserted to significantly increase chondrocyte proliferation both in healthy individuals and patients with knee and hip OA,33 some studies report that smoking is a major risk factor in knee OA pain and cartilage loss.34 35 A recent meta-analysis of 48 observational studies encompassing over 500 000 participants showed that the protective effect of smoking against knee and hip OA development is mainly true in case–control studies and especially hospital-based settings, and that the association was neutral in cohort and cross-sectional studies, especially community-based studies, which implies that the association is false negative.
Prior studies are conflicting, with some suggesting that obesity increases risk of symptomatic OA, while others state that obesity and radiographic OA are not significantly related.9 Although smoking is a major risk factor for several diseases including cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular disease,15 and is known to be related to elevated risk of musculoskeletal diseases such as back pain,16 17 chronic widespread pain18 and rheumatoid arthritis,19–21 there is still considerable debate regarding the association between smoking and OA of the knee and hip joint.Furthermore, the inhibitive role of smoking in knee and hip OA occurrence was only observed in current smokers, and not in ever-smokers or ex-smokers, revealing that smoking and knee and hip OA prevalence do not display a dose–response relationship and further suggesting that a causal relationship between smoking and knee and hip OA is unlikely.36 However, there are several limitations, such as the fact that diagnostic criteria for knee and hip OA and classification of smoking behaviour differ by study, and analyses were not conducted for associations between smoking habits (smoking amount, period and pack-years) and OA prevalence.In addition, there are no studies analysing the direct relationship between indirect smoking and knee and hip joint OA prevalence.See: (OA) is a widely prevalent disorder causing pain and limitation in activity due to gradual deterioration and inflammation of articular cartilage.1 The knee joint is a frequent site of OA-related pain,2 3 especially in older age groups where self-reported knee pain is commonly attributed to symptomatic and radiographic OA.4 A previous survey reported that up to 50% of the general population aged 50 or over suffered knee pain over the course of a year, and that 1/4 had severe disabling pain.5As life expectancy grows longer in an ageing society, the health and economic burden of knee and hip OA is expected to increase.6 7 According to the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) results, OA prevalence in the Korean population aged 50 years and above was 3.3% in men and 16.0% in women, showing that prevalence was five times higher in women and that it steeply increased with age (3.0% in 50s; 12.1% in 60s and 22.2% in 70s).8 A 2011 analysis of the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III data found that approximately 35% of men and women aged 60 years or older had radiographic OA of the knee,9 showing a wide gap with OA prevalence in Korea, which may be due to ethnical, cultural or lifestyle differences and consequent differences in risk factors for OA.Obesity, regarded as a major risk factor for OA by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), reportedly affects 28.5% of US men and 27.9% of women, which is the highest in OECD countries, while its prevalence in Korea (men 2.1% and women 1.6%, respectively) was at the lowest levels.10 Alternatively, this disparity may reflect the difference in method of OA diagnosis.
Elles confirment la position élevée dans la chaîne trophique des deux spécimens.